Having lost their own kingdom in the eleventh century to the invading Tartars and Seljuks, they managed to create a new kingdom farther south and west, in Cilicia, that flourished until 1375, playing a significant role during the Crusades.Then, they lost their last monarchy to the emerging Ottoman Empire, after the latter's westward expansion was stopped at the gates of Vienna. The designation "Armenia" applies to different entities: a "historical" Armenia, the Armenian plateau, the 1918–1920 U. State Department map of an Armenia, and the current republic of Armenia.The notion "Armenian culture" implies not just the culture of Armenia but that of the Armenian people, the majority of whom live outside the current boundaries of the republic of Armenia.Its climate is highland continental, with hot summers and cold winters.
The origins of these words can be traced to the Hittites, among whose historical documents is a reference to the Hayasa.
There is also "Grabar" Armenian, the original written language, which is still used in the liturgy of the Armenian national (Apostolic) church. Mount Ararat has had symbolic significance for all Armenians. It may be seen on the horizon from Yerevan, but like a mirage it remains inaccessible to Armenians.